dheu-4, dheu̯ǝ- (dhu̯ē-, extended dhuē̯ -k-, dhuē̯ -̆ s-)

dheu-4, dheu̯ǝ- (dhu̯ē-, extended dhuē̯ -k-, dhuē̯ -̆ s-)
    dheu-4, dheu̯ǝ- (dhu̯ē-, extended dhuē̯ -k-, dhuē̯ -̆ s-)
    English meaning: to reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke, dark, gray, deep etc.
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘stieben, wirbeln, especially von Staub, Rauch, Dampf; wehen, blow, Hauch, Atem; hence dampfen, ausdũnsten, riechen, stinken; stũrmen, in heftiger, wallender Bewegung sein, also seelisch; in heftige, wirbelnde Bewegung versetzen, schũtteln”
    Material: With m-formant: O.Ind. dhūmá -ḥ m. ‘smoke, vapor”, dhūmüyati “ smokes, steams “ = Lat. fūmüre ‘smoke, steam, reek, fume”, formal also = O.H.G. tūmōn “ turn in circles “; Gk. θῡμός “breath, life, soul, heart, spirit, courage, mind, temper, will, anger, wrath” (θῡμιάω still purely sensually ‘smoke, fumigate “; θῡμάλ-ωψ “ charcoal pile “, θυμικός “ ardent “, θῡμαίνω “rage against” etc); Lat. fūmus “ smoke, steam, vapor “ (fūmüre see above);
    Note: common Lat. d- > f- shift. Lith. dū́ mai pl. ‘smoke”, Ltv. dũmi pl., O.Pruss. dumis ds.; O.C.S. dymъ ‘smoke”; maybe Alb.Tosk tym “fume” [common Alb. d- > t- shift.] : also Alb.Gheg dhem, Alb. dhemb “hurt, ache”, dhimbje “pain” [common Alb. shift m > mb].
    Note: Clearly from Root dhem-, dhemǝ- : “to smoke; to blow” derived Root dheu-4, dheu̯ǝ- (presumably: dhu̯ē-, compare the extension dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s-): “to reel, dissipate, blow, etc.”. with ŭ: M.Ir. dumacha pl. “fog” (Ir. dumhach from *dhumuko- “ misty, dark”); Gk. θύμος, - ον “ thyme “ (strong-smelling plant as also θύμβρα, θύμβρον ‘satureja thymbra L.” s. Boisacq m. Lith.; after Niedermann Gl. 19, 14 to Russ. dubrávka, dubróvka “Potentilla Tormentilla”, that after Berneker 215 to O.C.S. dǫmbъ “oak” [see under S. 264] belongs). maybe truncated Alb. (*dhumusk-) dushk “ oak” : Ltv. dumûksnis ‘swamp, marsh” : O.C.S. dǫmbъ “oak” not from Alb. drushk “ oak”, dru- “tree, wood” because Alb. dr- > d- shift is not common. Lat. fimus “crap, muck, manure” (as *dhu̯-i-mos due to growing from suffio, -īre);
    Note: common Lat. d- > f- shift. with IE ou: O.H.G. toum “vapor, haze, mist, Duft”, O.S. dōmian ‘steam”. In addition coloring adjective the meaning “ smoke-color, fog-gray, dismal “: O.Ind. dhūmrá - “ smoke-color, gray, puce, cloudy, dull (also from the mind)”, dhūmala- “ smokecolor, puce “; Lith. dum̃blas ‘slime, mud, moor on the bottom of pond “, Ltv. dubl”i ‘slime, mud, ordure” (presumably = O.Ind. dhūmra-; compare but under S. 268 and Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 509), Ltv. dũmal”š “ swart, brown”, dũmaîns “ smoke-color “, dumjš, fem. dumja “ dark brown, paled, cloudily (from the eyes), stupid “, dumûksnis ‘swamp, marsh”, dumbra zeme “black moorland “, dum̃bris, dum̃brs “ spring, fountain, moor, morass “ (compare Mũhlenbach- Endzelin I 514; in detail about such moor names after the color Schulze Kl. Schr. 114); compare with dem coloring name suffix -no-: Ltv. dûńi, dùńas pl. ‘slime, mud”; with -ko-, respectively of the root extension with -k-: Ltv. dûksne, dùkste ‘swamp, marsh, pool, morass” :dũkans “ a red-brown hue, swart “; with -g-: Ltv. duga “ the glutinous mucus which swims on the water “, dugains û dens “ impure water “, dugains uguns “ dark, clouded flame “, dungans “ a red-brown hue “ (if latter not from *dumgans, compare bal̃gans “whitish”, salgans “ sugary “); with -t- Toch. В tute “yellow”? With l-formant : O.Ind. dhūli-, dhūlī f. “ dust, dusty surface of the earth, pollen “, dhūlikü “fog”, Alb. dëlënjë “ juniper “ (as “ wood smoking chips “, from *dhūlīni̯ o-); Maybe Alb. dyllë “wax, bee wax” : Lith. dū́ lis m., Ltv. dũlãjs, dũlẽjs “ smoker, smoking incense incense to drive away the bees “ (see below).
    Note: The common Alb. a > ë shift suggests that alb, cognate for “ juniper “ derived from Root dhü̆ l- : “ to blossom, be green “ : Alb. (*dalīni̯ ü) dëlinjë “juniper” and not from Root dheu-4, dheu̯ǝ-: “to reel, dissipate, blow, etc.”. Lat. fūlīgo “ soot; powder for darkening the eyebrows “
    Note: common Lat. d- > f- shift M.Ir. dūil “ wish, desire “ (*mind boiling , as θῡμός “the soul”), Lith. dū́ lis m. “ smoker, smoking incense incense to drive away the bees “, dùlkė “mote, speck”; Ltv. dũlãjs, dũlẽjs “ more smoking than burning torch to take the honey from the bees “; Lith. dul̃svas “ smokecolor, mouse grey”; changing through ablaut Russ. dúlo “ barrel (of a gun, a cannon “), dúlьce “ mouth piece of a wind instrument “ (etc, s. Berneker 237; previously Slav. derivatives von duti “blow”). Verbs and and single-linguistic nominal formation:
    Note: O.Ind. and Alb. prove that Root düu-, dǝu-, dū̆ - : “to burn” derived from Root dheu-4, dheu̯ǝ- (presumably: dhu̯ē-, compare the extension dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s-) : “to reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke etc.”. maybe Alb. dhunoj “violate, rape”, dhunë “violence”; O.Ind. dhūnṓ ti (dhunōti, dhuváti) “ shakes, moves to and fro, ventilates “, Fut. dhaviṣyati, perf. dudhüva, pass. dhūyá te, participle dhutá-ḥ, dhūtá -ḥ ‘shaken, agitated”, M.Pers. dīt ‘smoke”; O.Ind. dhunüti “ moves to and fro, shakes “, participle dhūnüna-, dhūni- f. “the shaking”, dhūnayati “ moves to and fro, shakes “, dhavítram n. “ flabellum, whisk “, dhavitavyà- “ fan, ventilate “; Av. dvaidī “ we both beset “? (*du-vaidī); Kuiper Nasalpräs. 53 places here O.Ind. dhvajati (Dhp. 7, 44), Av. dvažaiti “ flutters “ (in addition O.Ind. dhvajá-ḥ “banner, ensign, flag”) from *dhu̯-eg- (?); Arm. de-dev-im “ sway, swing “ (compare that likewise redupl. intensive dhvajá-ḥ O.Ind. dō-dhavīti); Gk. θύ̄ω (ἔθῡσα), Lesb. θυίω “ storm along, roar, rave, smoke “ (*dhu-i̯ō, υ: from θύ̄σω, ἔδῡσα, as also ū in O.Ind. pass. dhūyá te and O.N. dȳja ‘shake” neologism is; in the meaning “rage” maybe from *dhusi̯ō, s. dheu̯es-), θυάω, θυάζω ds., θύελλα ‘storm” (see S. 269 unterdheu̯es-), ep. θύ̄νω “ roam, therefore blow, rage “ (*θυνFω), θυνέω ds. (*θυνέFω), θῦνος πόλεμος, ὁρμή, δρόμος Hes. with the meaning ‘smoke (smoke offering), smell”: θύ̄ω (θύ̄σω), τέθῠκα “ sacrifice “, θυσία ‘sacrifice, oblation”, θῦμα “ sacrificial animal “, θύος n. “ incense (hence Lat. tūs “incense, frankincense”), oblation, sacrifice, oblation” (therefrom θυεία “mortar” [Alb. thuk “mortar”, thyenj “break, grind”]? s. Boisacq m. Lith.), θυόεις, θυήεις “ laden with incense, odorous, fragrant “, θύον “ a tree whose wood was burned because of its fragrance “, θυία, θύα “ an African tree with scented wood “, θυηλή “ oblation “ ( : Ion. θυαλήματα : Att. θῡλήματα, *θῠFα- : *θυ:-, s. Bechtel Lex. 168 f., Boisacq s. v.), θῠμέλη “ sacrificial altar, altar”. On the base of the meaning “(together) whirl” θί̄ς, θῑνός “heap, sandpile, esp. dune, sandbank, heaps generally “, from *θF-ῑν, shaped as ακτί̄ν-, γλωχί̄ν-, δελφί̄ν-, ὠδί̄ν-, compare Gk. θίλα “heap” (Hes.), to meaning under Ger. Dũne; barely with Schwyzer Gk. I 5702 to O.Ind. dhíṣṇya- “ litter put on earth “; Alb.Gheg dêj, Tosc dënj “fuddle”, Med. “ dwindle away, melt “ (*deuni̯ō, compare Goth. dauns “ fume, haze, mist”), dêjet “ flows, melts “; Maybe Alb. dêje “vein (where the blood flows)”, duf “air blow, anger, impatience, rage” : O.E. dofian “rage” : Lat. suffio -ire “to fumigate” (see below), also duplicated Alb. (*duh-duh) dudë “gum”. Lat. suf-fiō, -fīre “ to fumigate, perfume; to warm “ (suffīmentum “ incense “; about fĭmus see above) from *-dhu̯-ii̯ō, as fio “of persons and things, to be made, come into existence; with predicate, to become, be appointed; with genit., to be valued at; of actions, to be done; of events, to happen “ from *bhu̯-ii̯ō, foeteo, -ēre “evil smell, stink” due to a participle *dhu̯- oi-to-s (as pūteō from *pūtos);
    Note: common Lat. d- > f- shift. Clearly Lat. suffio -ire “to fumigate” derived from an Illyr. Alb. duf “blow”. here (as *piled up) Gaul., urIr. Δοῦνον, latin. dūnum, O.Ir. n. s-stem dūn ( : Lat. fūnus, s. S. 260) “castle” (*hill), O.Welsh din (Welsh dinas) ds.; O.Ir. dú(a)ë, arch. dóë “ bulwark, rampart, wall” (*dhōu̯ i̯ o-); O.Ir. dumae m. “hill”, Gaul. GN Dumiatis; also O.Ir. dé f. gen. dīad ‘smoke”, M.Ir. dethach ds. (*dhu̯ii̯at-); O.E. dūn m. f. “height, mountain”, Eng. down “ sand-hill, dune”, mnl. dūne, M.L.G. dǖne, out of it Ger. Dũne; compare to meaning Clr. vū-dma “dune” to Slav. dъmǫ “blow”; whereas is Gmc. *tū-na- “ fence, a preserved place “ (O.Ice. O.E. tūn ds., “town, city”, Ger. Zaun) probably Celt. Lw.; O.N. dȳja ‘shake” see above; Goth. dauns f. “ sweet scent, smoke “ (*dhou-ni), O.N. daunn m. “ fetidness “ (vgl Alb. dej; about O.H.G. Ger. dunst see under the root form *dheu̯es-); O.N. dūnn m. “down feather (*fan)” (out of it M.L.G. dūne, whereof again Ger. Daune ‘soft loose fluffy feathers, as on young birds”; compare M.Du. donst “ down feather (*fan), dust powder (*ash)” = dt. Dunst; s. Falk-Тогp under dun); O.S. dununga “ delusion “ (ŭ or ū?); O.Ice. dūni “fire”; Lith. dujà f. “mote, speck”, dujė “ down feather (*fan) “; dvỹlas “ black, black-headed “, ablaut. dùlas “ grayish “; Slav. *dujǫ, *duti (e.g. Russ. dúju, dutь) “blow”, changing through ablaut *dyjǫ in Sloven. díjem, díti “ blow, smell, breathe quietly “; O.C.S. dunǫ dunǫti (*dhoun-) “blow” (changing through ablaut with O.Ind. dhū̆ -nóti, -nüti, Gk. θύ̄νω); Toch. A twe, В tweye “dust”. compare still perhaps identical Proto-root *dheu- “run, flow”. Root extensions: I. bh-extension: dheubh- “ fly, smoke; misty, darkens, also from the mind and the reflection “. Gk. τύφω (θῦψαι, τῠφῆναι) “ smoke, vapor, fume, make smoke; burn slowly, singe; pass. smoke, give off vapor, gleam “, m. τῦφος “ smoke, steam, dense smoke; wooziness, folly, silly pride “; Maybe Pol. duma “ pride “, dumny “ proud “. τετῡφῶσθαι “be brainless, conceited, haughty”, τῡφῶς, -ῶ or -ῶνος “whirlwind, thunderstorm “, τῡφεδών, -όνος “ disastrous fire “, τῡφεδανός, τῡφογέρων “ feeble-minded age “; τυφλός “blind, dark, stupid “, τυφλόω “ blind “, τυφλώψ “blind”, τυφλώσσω “become blind”. O.Ir. dub (*dhubhu-) “black”, O.Welsh dub (*dheubh-), Welsh du, O.Corn. duw, M.Corn. du, Bret. dū́ “black”, Gaul. Dubis “ Le Doubs (eastern France) “, i.e. “ black, dark water “; probably also M.Ir. dobur “water”, Welsh dwfr, Corn. dour (i.e. dowr), Bret. dour (i.e. dur) ds., Gaul. Uerno-dubrum river name (“alder water “) are named after the same observation; however, maybe there are Celt. words with IE b which must be assumed that belong to dheub- “deep” (under S. 268), because “deep” and “black” could be slightly identical. So can the pomerell. FlN Dbra (*dъbra) be identical just as well with Ltv. dubra, Church Slavicdъbrь.
    Note: After Jokl (Eberts RL. 13, 286 f.) here Thrac. PN Δόβηρος (*dhubēr-), Δέβρη (*dheubrü) it seems that Baltic languages derived the concept of “deep” from Illyr. “black”, hence from Root dheu-4, dheu̯ǝ- (presumably: dhu̯ē-, compare the extension dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s-): “to reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke, dark, gray, deep etc.” derived Root dheu-b-, dheu-p- : “deep, *dark”. Goth. daufs (-b-) “deaf, obdurate”, O.N. daufr “deaf, idle”, O.E. dēaf “deaf”, O.H.G. toup (- b-) “deaf, obtuse, foolish”, O.N. deyfa, M.H.G. touben “ deafen, stun, make feeble “, changing through ablaut nd. duff “muggy (air), dim (color), muted (sound)”; Maybe Alb. duf “air blow, anger, impatience, rage” : O.E. dofian “rage”. Dutch dof, M.H.G. top “ senseless, brainless, crazy “, Maybe Alb. topis ‘stun”; ō-Verb: O.H.G. tobon, O.S. dovōn “ be mad “, O.E. dofian “rage”, ē-Verb: O.H.G. tobēn, Ger. toben, as well as (as participle a st. V.) O.N. dofinn “ dull, limp, half-dead “, wherefore dofna “ limp, become stale “; O.N. dupt n. “dust”, Nor. duft, dyft f. ds., M.H.G. tuft, duft “haze, mist, fog, dew, hoarfrost “, O.H.G. tuft “frost”, Ger. Duft “fine smell, odor” (or zur root form dheup-, see under); Goth. (hraiwa-) dūbō, O.N. dūfa, O.E. dūfe , O.H.G. tūba “ dove, pigeon “ (after the dark color). Nasalized Goth. dumbs, O.N. dumbr, O.E. dumb “ dumb “, O.H.G. tumb “ silent, stupid, incomprehensibe “, O.S. dumb “ oafish “. However, a *dhu-mbhos “dark” seems to be supported also by Slav. (see below). Maybe expressive Alb.Tosk dudum “ dumb “ Perhaps (Berneker 215) O.C.S. dǫbъ “oak, then tree generally “ as “tree with dark heartwood “ as Lat. rōbur. Against it can be by Ltv. dumbra zeme “black moorland “ etc b Einschublaut between m and r, see above, also by Lith. dum̃blas ‘slime, mud” (M.H.G. tũmpfel, Ger. Tũmpel, Prellwitz KZ. 42, 387, rather to Ger. tief, M.L.G. dumpelen “ submerge “, s.Schulze SBpr.Ak. 1910, 791 = Kl. Schr. 114). Besides dhūp- in: O.Ind. dhūpa- m. ‘smoke, incense “, O.H.G. tūvar, tūbar “ phrenetical “ (also in Duft? see above). 2. dh-extension: dheu-dh- “ whirl, shake, confuse through another”. O.Ind. dṓ dhat- “ stupefying, vehement, raving “, dúdhi-, dudhra- “ boisterous “, probably also dúdhita- (epithet von tamas “ darkness “) perhaps “ confused, thick”; Gk. θύσσεται τινάσσεται Hes. (*θυθι̯εται), θύσανος “ tassel “, Hom. θυσσανόεις “ festooned with tassels or fringes “ from *θυθι̯α (*dhudhi̯a = Ltv. duža “bundle”), τευθίς, τεῦθος, τευθός “ squid “ (“misting, muddling the water “); Gmc. *dud-, geminated *dutt- and *dudd-: Dan. dude, older dudde “ ryegrass, darnel “ (but about Ice. doðna “ become insensitive “ see above S. 260), nd. dudendop, -hop “ drowsy person”, O.Fris. dud “ anesthetization “, Nor. dudra “tremble”, O.E. dydrian “ deceive “; with -dd-: Eng. dial. dudder “bewilder”, dodder “tremble, wobble, sway”, Eng. dodder “ any plant of the genus Cuscuta; any of various choking or climbing weeds “; with -tt-: M.Du. dotten, dutten “ be crazy “, M.L.G. vordutten “bewilder”, M.H.G. vertutzen, betũtzen “ become deaf, but get collectedness “, Ice. dotta “ fall asleep due to tiredness, nod because of exhaustion “; maybe Alb. vërtit “bewilder, turn” similarly, on the basis of *dhu̯edh-: E.Fris. dwatje “ stupid girl”, dwatsk “ oafish, eccentric “, Jũtisch dvot “ suffering from Coenurus cerebralis “; Swe. dodra, M.H.G. toter m. “ yellow plant, dodder “, M.Eng. doder, nEng. dodder “ any plant of the genus Cuscuta, comprising leafless threadlike twining plants with parasitic suckers; it attaches itself to some other plant as to flax etc. and decaying at the root, is nourished by the plant that supports it “, Dutch (vlas)-doddre ds. After Falk-Torp under dodder if the word was transferred as a name for certain plants with yellow thredlike stems: O.S. dodro, O.H.G. totoro, O.E. dydring “egg - yellow “ (-ing prove the derivative of plant name); rather has been for it “clump” = “ thick mass” in contrast to melting egg white the mediative meaning (Persson) or compare Nor. dudra “tremble” the elastic shivering of this colloid rocking core; compare O.Ice. doðr-kvisa “a bird”. 3. k-extension: dhu̯ēk-, dhū̆ k- and dheuk-: O.Ind. dhukṣatē, dhukṣayati with sam- “ blown up the fire, kindled, animated “, dhūka- m. (unleashed) “wind”; common O.Ind. ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation Lith. dve ̃kti, dvėkúoti, dvėkterėti “breathe, pant, gasp”, dvõkti ‘stink”, dvãkas “breath, breeze, breath”, dùksas ‘sigh”, dūkstù , dū̃ kti “ become raving, rage “, dū̃ kis “fury”, Ltv. dùcu, dùkt “ roar, rage “, ducu, ducêt it. “roar”, dūku (*dunku), duku, dukt “ become mat “; color names as Ltv. dũkans “ swart “ (see above) hit presumably the bridge to: O.H.G. tugot “variegated”, tougan “ dark, concealed, mysterious, miraculous “, n. “ mystery, miracle “, O.S. dōgalnussi “ mystery, hiding place, nook”, O.E. dēagol, dīegle “ clandestine “, O.H.G. tougal “ dark, concealed, secret “; also O.E. dēag f. “paint, color, red or purple dye; red or purple color; rouge; in gen., paint, dye of any color; bee-glue “, dēagian “dye”, Eng. dye. 4. l-extension: dh(e)u̯el- (compare in addition above the l-nouns as O.Ind. dhūli-) “ whirl up, cloud (water, the mind); murky, dark, spiritually weak “. Gk. θολός ‘slime, mud, smut, esp. from murky water, the dark juice of the cuttlefish “ (= Goth. dwals), adj. “cloudy”, θολόω “cloudy”, θολερός “muddy, cloudy, eclipse; verwirrt, beguile “; Δύαλος, name of Dionysos by the Paeones (Hes.) “ the raving “, Illyr. Δευάδαι οἱ ΢άτ[υρ]οιὑπ” “Iλλυριῶν (Hes.); maybe Alb. dal “go out, move out, wander aimlessly”, nasalized ndal ‘stop, hinder, delay” : O.N. dvelja “hinder, delay”, O.S. bidwellian “hinder”, O.N. dvǫl f. “delay”, O.E. dwala m. “aberration”. O.Ir. dall “blind”, clūas-dall “deaf” (“unable to hear, blind”), Welsh Corn. Bret. dall “blind” (about *du̯allos < *du̯l̥los from *dhu̯l̥no-s); Goth. dwals “ oafish “, O.N. dvala f. “ coma, doze, stupor “; changing through ablaut O.S. O.E. dol “ clownish, crazy”, O.H.G. tol, tulisc “crazy, nonsensical “, Ger. toll, Eng. dull “ stupid, tasteless, weak (also from colors)”, O.N. dul f. “ concealment, illusion, arrogance “, dylja “ negate, conceal “ and on the other hand O.N. dø̄ lskr (*dwōliska-) “crazy”; O.S. fardwelan st. V. “miss, fail”, O.Fris. dwilith “ errs “; O.E. participle gedwolen “ wrong, mistaken “, O.H.G. gitweɫan “ be dazed, tarry “, O.N. dulinn “ conceited, arrogant “; Kaus. O.N. dvelja “hinder, delay”, O.S. bidwellian “hinder”, O.E. dwelian “ misguide “, O.H.G. *twaljan, twallen, M.H.G. twel(l)en “hinder, delay”; O.N. dvǫl f. “delay”, O.E. dwala m. “aberration”, O.H.G. gitwolo “ infatuation, heresy”; Goth. dwalmōn “crazy, be phrenetical “, O.E. dwolma, O.S. dwalm “ anesthetization “, O.H.G. twalm “ anesthetization, narcotic smoke, smoke”, O.N. dylminn “ thoughtless, frivolous “, Dan. dulme “ drowse “. 5. n-extension : dhu̯en(ǝ)- “ scatter, sprinkle, be moved violently; whirling smoke, fog, cloud; befogged = dark, also from the darkening of the consciousness, the death “. O.Ind. ádhvanīt “ he burnt out, was extinguished, dwindled “ (of anger, actually “ evaporated, sprayed “), Kaus. dhvü̆ nayati “ darkens “, participle dhvüntá - “dark”, n. “ darkness”; Av. dvan- with pre verb “fly” (apa-dvąsaiti “ macht sich auf zum Davonfliegen “, upadvąsaiti “ goes flying there “, Kaus. us-dvąnayat̃ “ he allows to fly upwards “); dvąnman- n. “cloud”, aipi-dvąnara- “cloudy, misty “, dunman- “fog, cloud”; Gk. θάνατος “death”, θνητός “ perishable “ (*dhu̯enǝtos and *dhu̯n̥̄tós), Dor. θνά̄σκω “die”, reshaped after the present in -ίσκω Att. ἀποθνῄσκω (-θανοῦμαι, -θανεῖν), Lesb. θναίσκω ds. (Schwyzer Gk. I 362, 709, 770); Ltv. dvans, dvanums “haze, mist, vapor”, dviñga “haze, mist, coal steam “ (Mũhlenbach- Endzelin I 546). 6. r-extension: dheu̯er- (dhu̯er-, dheur-) “ whirl, attack, hurry; vortex = dizziness, folly “. O.Ind. (unleashed) dhōraṇ a- n. “trot”, dhōrati “ trots “ (= sl. dur-, see under); perhaps dhurǘ adv. “ violent, forcible “; dhüṭ ī “ raid, night raid “, if mind. development from *dhvürtī “ Heranstũrmen “; perhaps Gk. ἀ-θύ̄ρω (*ἀ- = n̥ “in” + *θυρι̯ω) “ play, I amuse “, ἄθυρμα “ play, toys; jewellery, ornament things “ (if “play” from ‘spring”); Lith. padùrmai adv. “ with impetuosity, stormy”, O.Pruss. dūrai nom. pl. ‘shy”; Russ. durь “ folly, fatuity, stubborness “, durě́tь, “ lose the mind “, durítь “make pranks”, durák “fool”, dúra “fool, clown”, durnój “evil, bad, ugly”, dial. “ unreasonable, furious “, durníca “ henbane, ryegrass, darnel “, Clr. dur, dura “ anesthetization, dizziness, tomfoolery “, Serb. dûrīm, dúriti se “flare up, foam” etc; Toch. A taur, В tor “dust”?
    References: WP. I 835 ff.; WH. I 499 f., 561 f., 57 If., 865; Trautmann 62 f., Schwyzer Gk. I 686, 696, 703.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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